D3.1 Current Situational Analysis and Conceptual Framework

D3.1 Current Situational Analysis and Conceptual Framework

Project Acronym

I3
Grant Agreement Number 688541
Project Full Title I3 Impact Innovate Invest
Document Type Deliverable
Document & WP No. D3.1 WP3
Document Title Current Situational Analysis and Conceptual Framework
Partner iMinds, Eurokleis, T6ECO
Release date 14/04/2016

 

Review status Action Person Date
Quality Check Shenja van der Graaf 14/04/2016
Internal Review Simona De Rosa, Francesco Bellini 13/04/2016
Distribution Public

 

Revision history
Version Date Modified by Comments
V0.1 16/02/16 Jonas Breuer, iMinds Initial document structure
V0.2 20/02/16 Jonas Breuer, iMinds Post Review Document structure
V0.2 25/02/16 Jonas Breuer, iMinds First version of chapter 1
V0.2 10/03/16 Jonas Breuer, iMinds First version of chapter 2
v.03 16/03/2016 Shenja van der Graaf, iMinds Second version of chapter 1
V0.4 20/03/2016 Jonas Breuer Introduction, 3rd version chapter 1 & 2
V0.5 07/04/2016 Jonas Breuer I3 formatting & 1st version chapter 3
V0.6 11/04/2016 Simona De Rosa, T6 Chapter 3
V0.7 12/04/2016 Jonas Breuer, Simona De Rosa, Shenja van der Graaf Last inputs and formatting
V1.0 14/04/2016 Shenja van der Graaf Final

 

Statement of originality:

This deliverable contains original unpublished work except where clearly indicated otherwise. Acknowledgement of previously published material and of the work of others has been made through appropriate citation, quotation or both.


Table of Contents

List of Tables ………. – 4 –

List of Figures ………. – 4 –

Executive Summary ………. – 5 –

Introduction ………. – 6 –

1.1    Convergence and Social Media ………. – 7 –

1.2    Social Media Convergence as a Research Field ………. – 8 –

1.3    Social Media Convergence Ecosystem ………. – 11 –

1.4    Innovation and Social Media Convergence ………. – 12 –

2    Social Media Convergence Research Projects ………. – 14 –

2.1    Project Review ………. – 14 –

2.1.1   MediaScape ………. – 15 –

2.1.2   TV-Ring ………. – 15 –

2.1.3   FORWARD ………. – 16 –

2.1.4   COMPEIT ………. – 17 –

2.1.5   CrowdRec ………. – 18 –

2.1.6   ICoSOLE ………. – 18 –

2.1.7   NUBOMEDIA ………. – 19 –

2.1.8   UCN ………. – 20 –

2.1.9   BRIDGET ………. – 20 –

2.1.10 REVEAL ………. – 21 –

2.1.11 SAM ………. – 22 –

2.1.12 HBB4ALL ………. – 23 –

2.1.13 ACTION-TV ………. – 23 –

2.1.14 2-Immerse ………. – 24 –

2.1.15 MPAT ………. – 25 –

2.1.16 VisualMedia ………. – 25 –

2.1.17 ImmersiaTV ………. – 26 –

2.1.18 InVID ………. – 26 –

2.1.19 COGNITUS ………. – 27 –

2.2    Clustering of Projects ………. – 28 –

2.2.1   Activities ………. – 28 –

2.2.2   Technologies and outputs ………. – 30 –

2.2.3   Target Users ………. – 34 –

2.2.4   Business Focus & Technology Readiness ………. – 35 –

3    i3 Methodology and its Indicators ………. – 36 –

Conclusion ………. – 38 –

References ………. – 39 –

Annex B) List of Project dates & Websites ………. – 47 –


List of Tables

Table 1: Activities of Projects working directly with social media ………. – 30 –

Table 2: Projects working with Internet-based TV ………. – 31 –

Table 3: Projects working on Interactive TV ………. – 32 –

Table 4: Projects providing a platform as part of their output ………. – 32 –

Table 5: Projects providing toolsets as part of their output ………. – 33 –

Table 6: Overview of Reviewed Projects ………. – 46 –

Table 7: List of Project dates & Websites ……….- 49 –


List of Figures

Figure 1: Social Media Ecosystem ………. – 13 –

Figure 2: Projects working on Multi-platform Content ………. – 28 –

Figure 3: Projects integrating Social Media ………. – 29 –

Figure 4: Projects related to broadcasting and other forms of audiovisual consumption ………. – 30 –

Figure 5: Summary of Project Activities and Outputs ………. – 34 –

Figure 6: Project Target User Groups ………. – 35 –


Executive Summary

This report provides the starting point and foundation to the i3 Impact Innovate Invest support action, in conjunction with D2.1 “Methodological framework definition. Its analysis and discussion provide an overview and introduction to the Social Media and Convergence domain.

Combining a theoretical overview with an investigation of pre-existing ICT research in the domain, it identifies assumptions about the type of activities, platforms, services, resources and target audience characteristics. Determining those domain specific issues allows i3 to determine appropriate tools and methodologies for projects to increase their impact. Nineteen research projects funded under FP7 and ICT19-2015 “Technologies for creative industries, social media and convergence” were reviewed based on publicly available documents.

In order to do so, chapter one provides an introduction to convergence and social media, the terminology, academic discourse and its more practical implications. Chapter two presents a review of the research projects, according to the four criteria (Type Of Activities, Type of ICT, Target Audiences, Services Or Products Offered) and a mapping of their activities, objectives and outputs, which is based on the analysis of the projects. Chapter 3 considers the assumptions made for the i3 methodology and consolidates them with the results of the project review.

Several conclusions are drawn from the work at hand. First, at this stage of the project, assumptions about appropriate methodologies and tools are preliminary and have to be validated by and co-created with research projects. Second, the social media and convergence consists of and affects many aspects of social, political and economic life as well as technology itself. In line with this, “vertical indices” built by the i3 methodology are relevant for the projects in practice, in particular to derive results on business model considerations and investor other than analyse the economic, technological and social impact. Third, it remains to be seen how interested the projects and their consortia are in self-assessment, as they might hesitate to invest additional time and effort if the gains are not clear.


Introduction

This deliverable constitutes the starting point to i3, and is complementary to deliverable 2.1 “Methodological framework definition”. As laid down in the Description of Work (DoW), subsequent analysis and discussion aim to provide an overview and introduction to the Social Media and Convergence domain. It functions to investigate pre-existing ICT research in the domain funded under FP7 and in Horizon 2020, to identify assumptions about the type of activities, platforms, services, resources and target audience characteristics.

In accordance with the objectives of the ICT19-2015, i3 thereby contributes to the research and policy exchange in Convergence and Social Media supporting R&D programmes/activities, dissemination of results and organisation of scientific and/or policy events. Determining those domain specific issues allows i3 to determine appropriate tools and methodologies for projects to increase their impact. This document thus complements WP2, as it serves to validate the indicators developed therein.

Nineteen research projects funded under FP7 and ICT19-2015 “Technologies for creative industries, social media and convergence” were reviewed based on publicly available documents. Although each project has its specific objectives, they are united in their aim to innovate the broad media convergence domain. These insights constitute a decisive building block for the methodology and i3 in general. All of the projects are also invited to the i3 ecosystem, to further co-create and validate i3 methodology and to participate in activities and events, such as workshops and master-classes.

In this way, T3.1 and D3.1 serve as a foundation for the whole WP, which investigates and structures the ecosystem, and determines the most appropriate ways of engaging projects and stakeholders. WP3 is horizontal to the whole project, interrelated to other WPs by offering support in engaging stakeholders at all stage of methodology development and deployment (WP2) and coaching them, in collaborating to engage the investors and take-up of projects results (WP4) and for communication and dissemination activities (WP6). As stated above, D3.1 is most complementary to D2.1.

The deliverable is structured as follows. It sets off by providing an introduction to convergence and social media, the terminology, academic discourse and its more practical implications. This is followed by a review of the 19 research projects and the mapping of their activities, objectives and outputs. Chapter 2.1 assesses each project according to four criteria: the Type Of Activities, describing what the project is working on; the Type of ICT, describing with what technology the project is working; the Target Audiences, describing which user or customer segment is prioritised by the project; Services Or Products Offered, describing what is concretely being offered based on the outcomes of the project. The projects are listed in order of their termination date, starting with the one ending first. Based on this, Chapter 2.2 categorises the projects according to factors such as their activities and outputs. Chapter 3 links the results of the review with the methodology[1]


1. Defining the area under investigation

As stated by the European Commission in the H2020 call ICT19-2015, ubiquitous technology adoption, widespread use of mobile devices, broadband internet penetration and increasing computing power affect the consumption of content; high-quality content, new user experiences, anywhere, anytime, on any device. Consequently, developments related to content creation, access, retrieval and interaction offer a number of opportunities and challenges for the creative and media industries (H2020 call ICT19-2015).

This evolution shapes the area under investigation for this deliverable. This chapter accordingly provides an introduction to that area from a theoretical perspective; it discusses convergence and social media, terminology, the academic discourse. It arrives at certain practical implications for the i3 project, which are taken up in chapter 2. This serves as the starting point to the deliverable at hand, providing the necessary background not only for remaining chapters but also for other deliverables and work-packages.

1.1    Convergence and Social Media

In the digital and creative industries domain, the term convergence is used to denote the technical convergence of communications networks and protocols. This process has facilitated the relative (further) convergence of markets, industries and service provisions that, in turn, has facilitated the emergence of new strategies of content provision by (media) industries (Ibrus & Scolari, 2012). In technical terms, it becomes increasingly easier to repurpose or modify intellectual property for multiple media and, in this way, create new meaningful connections between distinct media ‘spaces’ or associated ‘experiences’. In this creative realm, the term tends to often be interchanged with notions such as ‘transmedia’, ‘crossmedia’, ‘intermedia’ as well as ‘360 degree content’ and ‘multiplatform content’ (van der Graaf et al., 2010). Media convergence is thus a process that should not be viewed as a displacement of so-called old media, but rather as interaction between different media forms and platforms[2] (Jenkins, 2006). It should be regarded as cooperation and collaboration between previously unconnected forms and platforms of media.

In this convergence point of view, in particular social media as an indispensable part of everyday life, warrant our attention. Social media is a widely used umbrella term that refers to the set of tools, applications, and services that enable people to interact with others using network technologies such as personal computers, smart-phones, tablets, and network capable televisions[3]. They are said to offer new opportunities for data collection, research design, and publication based on (often complex) data aggregation and visualization. Facilitated by user friendly and attractively priced (or free) software technologies, social media sites on the Internet are “all forms of digital culture, networked in technology and collaborative in principle” (Uricchio, 2004, p. 86). This observation echoes other definitions of social media, in blending together technology and social interaction for the co-creation of some kind of value, enabled and facilitated by practices of convergence.

A dominant discourse in labelling and understanding social media convergence is its linkage to the notion of Web 2.0 (O’Reilly, 2005). Widely adopted in popular and scholarly discourse, the term Web 2.0 has described the shift from a static perspective on web content delivery toward a dynamic perspective, where web tools, applications, and services are put into the hands of people who are regarded as participants rather than as end users. As the Web 2.0 evolved, and platforms and users moved more everyday activities to online platforms, thereby highlighting the mutual constitution of the construction of platforms and social practices, a shift became apparent from providing a utility to providing a customized service.

Indeed, social media tends to be associated with a convergence of production, distribution, and consumption practices and a blending of user creativity, collaboration, and sharing enabled and assisted network technologies. In this way, social media is said to support the democratization of knowledge and information associated with a shift from individuals as mere content consumers to content producers; a practice generally referred to as user generated content (or, user creativity).

The power of convergence and social media roots then in their ability to connect people across time and space, facilitating a range of easily accessible and scalable channels through which interactions and experiences can occur. A wide range of systems can be seen to support one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many interactions. Many of these kinds of interactions open up a myriad of new possibilities for online connections, supporting the generation of ‘digital spaces’ for people to gather, participate and create, and publics to form for various free and paid-for services and other socio-economic, political and legal practices.

1.2    Social Media Convergence as a Research Field

In understanding the coevolution of social media convergence in terms of ‘sociality’ and ‘media convergence’ (or, platforms) generally two perspectives can be discerned, the administrative, or instrumental, and critical approaches, each guided by their own research agenda highlighting particular values and actions in the cultural, social, political, and economic domains (Mansell, 2012).

The distinction is not clear-cut. In the context of information and communication technology (ICT) research, the administrative approach tends to focus on the materiality or hardware of ICT and aspects related to the mastery of technological and social systems, while a critical view tends to focus on the material characteristics, symbolism of technologies and their applications, and aspects of the diversity of information production and consumption. In the context of internet research, the administrative stream can be seen to veer in its understanding of social media toward a progressive means of benefiting the economy or an inclusive technology advantaging democracy, while the critical stance tends to give precedence to unequal power relationships over opportunities of resistance or mobilization (van der Graaf, 2015).

A closer look at the various literatures that engage with social media convergence in all its facets, enables us to distil a user-centric and network-centric analytical framework (Langlois, 2013). The user-centric framework centre-stages the linkage between technology and empowerment. It highlights the centrality of people supported by (social) media in creation and exchange practices, fostering new ways of expression, meanings, representations, and so forth. The role of social media as a platform is of lesser importance than is enabling and facilitating technology associated with more opportunities for participation and agency. The network-centric framework tends to focus on the examination of networked conditions and regulations underpinning the dispersion of information on the internet. In other words, research tends to address the technical elements of the infrastructure – or, the processes of transmission – vis-à-vis political and economic dynamics, which tends to yield insights into governance issues involved in network control.

For example, legal, political, and economic struggles can be detected about deep packet inspection and the monitoring of illegal downloads, which are currently being played out. Research of this kind shows the way the ‘conditions of networking’ are (re)formed by political and economic interests that are said to endanger or limit the extent of user participation and agency, drawing attention to issues such as privacy and surveillance (Marwick, 2012).

However, the dynamic underpinning the intricacies of social media convergence – such as, how social media convergence develops in relation to other (social) media, technological architectures, and the sociocultural logic guiding its performance – warrants a view of social media convergence as a dynamic process embedding both a technocultural construct and socioeconomic structure (van Dijck, 2013).

Renewed attention is needed to make the networked conditions apparent that underpin social media-related practices, together with a reassessment of the dynamic and open-ended flow that guides communication practices. This is put aptly by Langlois (2013) when she argues that “focusing on the networked conditions within which the cultural process of communication takes place and within which parameters of participation are defined involves tracking the interplay between networks of technology, policy making, economic interests, legal frameworks, and the cultural production and circulation of meanings” (p. 96).

Following this way of conceptualizing social media and convergence developments, the I3 project has an interest in approaching the ‘fabric of social media convergence’ – drawn out, as a starting point, by the funded projects outlined in the next Chapter – as embedded (user-centric and network-centric) relationships between conceptualizations of technology, users, content, ownership, governance, and business models.

Thus, for those with an affinity to technology, the term ‘platform’ is utilized in the examination of the techno–sociocultural roles of (meta)data, algorithms, and interfaces. These, in various capacities, are seen as shaping the experiences of those using social media. Amazon, for example, computes algorithms to learn about people’s reading tastes and purchase behaviours and, in this way, can make book suggestions. With a slogan “Customers who bought this item, also bought…” Amazon can adhere or appeal to different modes of sociality, directing certain consumer behaviour (van Dijck, 2013).

Algorithms then are seen as a corporation’s core proprietary asset. Also, research on the front-end of technology, that is the user-facing interface, tends to analyse “defaults.” It examines the standard settings of many software applications that can be seen to steer user behaviour, often referred to as “ideological manoeuvrings” and associated with struggles over privacy and information control, in particular, those related to the numerous volumes of (personal) data that is provided, collected and stored and via convergence mechanism be it infrastructural or based on e.g. a seller-reseller principle between (3rd) parties.

While perhaps people are not always fully aware of the mechanisms that underpin their social media practices, research has shown that they are not ‘dupes,’ uncritical of social media convergence either. Studies have yielded insights into how different social media architectures facilitate specific styles of connectedness, self-presentation (such as ‘real-life identity’ versus ‘alias’), and taste performance. Moreover, debates about the role of people – at times, recipients, consumers, producers, amateurs, citizens, labourers, and so forth – in the context of social media convergence tend to concentrate on ideological issues such as empowerment (e.g., fluid ownership status, monetizing strategies) and identity formation in expressing and presenting oneself, and, again, raising issues about the control over information.

From a content perspective, social media convergence has been approached as a vehicle for user-generated content. Especially since the mid-2000s, an increase in content as ‘connective resource’ rather than as a means of expression can be detected. This user-created content draws attention to what people dis/like, their opinions and engagements, and so forth, and tends to offer a building ground for group forming and community building as well as to offer valuable insights into trends and consumer preferences.

Battles over ‘good content’ among users and owners are commonplace (Gasser & Ernst, 2006). Content owners seek to resolve these by imposing rules and guidelines about what is appropriate or legally allowed. Moreover, over the past decade or so, a shift can be detected from offering (digital) products to services, requiring corporations to look for new ways of monetizing online creativity and sociality such as selling virtual products, subscriptions, advertising, and (meta)data. Research veers between viewing monetizing strategies as a static exploitation model and as dynamic facilitator in the process of shaping sociality and creativity.

In this context, associated issues such as ownership structures become relevant as well especially as many social media platforms started out as non-profit, ‘collectively owned user-centred’ organizations and have made a shift to profit-driven and commercially owned organizations. For example, early start-ups such as MySpace, YouTube and Flickr were bought respectively by News Corp, Google and Yahoo.

Against this ‘inclusive perspective,’ the following themes or questions can be said to highlight the analytical fabric of social media convergence, and which underpin the projects funded H2020 call ICT19-2015 (see Chapter 2): 1) the dynamics of participation, privacy and empowerment; 2) commodification, professionalization and monetization; and 3) technology and governance mechanisms.

Issues related to particularly the first point can include: What are the effects of new ‘social’ technologies on cooperation and community building and how can these effects be studied effectively? What are the legal and administrative problems in promoting and building the social, technological and economic means for cooperation and facilitating self-regulation? How can voluntary cooperation be promoted through formal and informal practices or organizations, including social and expert networks? How can these changes be ethically justified and how does this interrelate to the understanding of basic ethical concepts such as responsibility? How to solve potential tensions between sustainability issues and democracy and human rights?

Issues related to especially point 2 can include: How do practices, at the national, regional and organisational level, enable or constrain innovation and productive entrepreneurship? How can coordination problems, legal disputes and free-riding in innovation be solved? How do sociality and technologies co-evolve? How do changes in business systems and corporate governance affect economic growth? What is the role of social media convergence at the micro-level (household systems, inheritance) in long-run patterns of growth and global divergencies in wealth and welfare? How can technological and social innovation be evaluated ethically? To what extent and how do entrepreneurs, research institutes and innovative organisations create ‘change’ via social media convergence? How did, and does, social media convergence impact the organization of the labour market, such as in terms of skill building, social mobility, equality and social cohesion?

Issues related to particularly point 3 can include: How do funding and organisational arrangements affect the accessibility of education, knowledge and culture underpinning social media convergence? How can we use, reuse and improve the organisation of common pool resources and open access resources, such as (standardized) software code and types of knowledge, to ensure that they are used well? What is the role of social media convergence across states, the construction and negotiation of privacy, identity and citizenship, and its interaction with (political) participation?

1.3    Social Media Convergence Ecosystem

Convergence of digital and creative industries in general, and in particular of social media, means pervasive interconnectedness between formerly separated fields. This entails that also the social media and convergence ecosystem is not clear-cut[4], but consists of and affects many aspects of social, political and economic life as well as technology itself. The rise of sociality witnessed in the emergence and adoption of an increasingly large number of platforms and size of user base has yielded a complex ecosystem where both community dynamics and commerce are constantly intersecting.

The various lines of investigation into social media and a range of creative practices that are often involved, tend to highlight a ‘new economy’ where a new configuration is said to exist between corporations and users associated with technological and organizational innovation and which may yield substantial market value (van der Graaf, 2015). In the capacity of joining the market and social media together, opportunities for innovation and learning that potentially benefit the firm may be distilled. In this regard, creativity, as a mode of innovation and an area of economic activity, is not understood on an individual basis but rather is a process that is evoked in a context and organization of actors, knowledge, networks, and technologies (Pratt 2004).

Thus, participation in production and consumption practices consists of networks of practitioners stressing ‘information feedback’ over individual preferences or price signals, suggesting a move towards the ‘growth of knowledge’ (Potts et al. 2008).

In fact, corporations today regard the properties of social media, such as social networking sites like Facebook, as the means to acquire, engage, and retain customers. More specifically, the rise of social media is said to downplay professional expertise associated with a closed and proprietary-based understanding of the firm, favouring the growth of knowledge associated with open networks encompassing all participants, across firm boundaries. Social media practices produce knowledge that entail massive learning opportunities for all stakeholders involved.

These converging firm-user dynamics occurring in communities or networks of practice draw attention to the importance of the role of knowledge in social and economic development, stressing the ‘need to continuously harness new technologies and processes to develop knowledge societies that are people-centred’ (Unesco 2007: 1).

1.4    Innovation and Social Media Convergence

The review of the research projects in the domain, as presented in following chapter, will demonstrate that the aspects discussed above are highly applicable for i3.

Firstly, the term of ‘multiplatform’ – increasingly used as a more ‘neutral’ meta-term to replace all the various others with their slightly different connotative implications – describes well the central objectives of a majority of the projects financed by the call: creating multi-device integrated media experiences.

Secondly, from a content perspective, social media convergence has been approached as a vehicle for user-generated content. In this regard, the reviewed projects demonstrate the high relevance of content generation. This user-created content draws attention to what people dis/like, their opinions and engagements, and so forth, and tends to offer a building ground for group forming and community building as well as to offer valuable insights into trends and consumer preferences.

Battles over ‘good content’ among users and owners are commonplace in the domain. Content owners impose rules and guidelines about what is appropriate or legally allowed. This is a decisive aspect for the increasing of impact of research results, as it is envisioned by i3, especially regarding economic impact.

Lastly, monetisation strategies and generally business models need to be investigated trough the i3 methodology. Corporations constantly look for new ways of monetizing online creativity and sociality (selling virtual products, subscriptions, advertising, (meta)data etc.) and research veers between viewing monetizing strategies as a static exploitation model and as dynamic facilitator in the process of shaping sociality and creativity. In this context, associated issues such as ownership structures are very relevant.

To keep pace with trends and remain competitive, affected industries need to explore new ways of creating and accessing content. The opportunity to establish new forms of content and user engagement could be transformative to many businesses here. Therefore, the aim of I3 is to support projects in the domain with issues as described in previous section; increasing impact and value, by bridging the gap between technologies/services developed and market access, increasing cooperation within the convergence media ecosystem and liaising with related innovation and R&D programmes both at the European international and national levels.

In order to reach its objectives, from the i3 perspective, five interconnected components of Figure 1 can lead to a stronger and more innovative European Social Media sector, as well as a more innovative economy across all sectors and territories. I3 Policy Dialogue will be needed to understand still existing roadblock and hurdles to innovation uptake in spite of the fact that European governments have taken important steps to establish business friendly policies and reduce startup costs for companies.

Figure 1: Social Media Ecosystem

 

1.5. Social Media Convergence Research Projects

Due to the dynamics and complexities of this dynamic domain, the European Commission intends to support R&D activities, the dissemination of their results and the organisation of scientific and policy events in Convergence and Social Media. As concrete addressees of i3’s activities, nineteen projects were thus chosen that are funded by the ICT19 cluster “Technologies for creative industries, social media and convergence”, under FP7, CIP and H2020. Although each project has its specific objectives, they are united in their aim to innovate the broad media convergence domain.

These projects will be invited to collaborate with i3, benefitting from activities to increase impact of their research. They also provide decisive insights for the i3 methodology in addition to the literature review presented above. Their publicly available documents have been analysed and gained insights are presented below. The i3 project and in particular its methodology (see D2.1) is thus informed by the literature review and the review of the projects in Convergence and Social media domains.

The general overview produced in the previous section gives an idea of the complexity of the call due to the heterogeneity of the projects in relation to activities, outputs, technological solutions, target users and business orientation. Such diversity will be deeply explored through the methodology developed for the impact assessment and through dedicated meeting with the projects that i3 will schedule. However, the starting point of the i3 investigation starts with a review of each project to better identify projects peculiarities and strengths.

As stated in D2.1, the the strategy developed by Ebrhaim and Rangan (2014) in the value chain approach has to be taken into account in order to derive a good measure of impact. The aim of the chain is to analyse the complete process through five steps: inputs, the key (in)tangible investments in a project; activities, the specific actions a project is undertaking; outputs, the results of such activities; outcomes, the short-term effects a project asserts on its stakeholders; and finally impact, the long-term changes a project facilitates due to its outcomes (D2.1, chapter 2.2).

This also entails that impact is really measurable only after a certain amount of time. In accordance with the European Commission, it can be assumed that after two to five years after the end of a project it is possible to measure its impact (D2.1, chapter 2.2). Because i3 needs to perform its activities in parallel with the running projects, it will thus focus on expected impacts based on activities, outputs and some outcomes.

Following the individual reviews of the nineteen research projects in section 2.5, results are summarised and interpreted in section 2.6. Here, the projects are categorised under different criteria, an important step in establishing the i3 methodology.

1.6    Project Review

For the following review, each project was assessed according to four concrete criteria, which relate to the modules of the impact value chain: the Type Of Activities, describing what the project is working on; the Type of ICT, describing with what technology the project is working; the Target Audiences, describing which user or customer segment is prioritised by the project; Services Or Products Offered, describing what is concretely being offered based on the outcomes of the project.

The projects are listed in order of their termination date, starting with the one ending first. The list of the projects, their funding, start and end dates, is included in the annex to this report. An overview of the detailed review can also be found under Annex A).

1.5.1  MediaScape

Dynamic Media Service Creation, Adaptation and Publishing on Every Device

Type of Activities

MediaScape[5] researches a standardised approach for advanced connected services, converging TV, PC and Mobile. This helps broadcasters to provide a socially engaging experience across multiple screens for broadcast and streamed content, and associated applications in order to provide more consistent multi-device and multi-user media services. Concretely, it works on design and specification, on connection and synchronisation and multi-device authentication, on adaptive multi-device applications and on underlying standardisation

Type of ICT

HTML5 is at the core of the project. The focus is on technology to realise dynamic multi-device, multi-user service adaptation, seamless hybrid broadcast-internet synchronisation, the authentication and dynamic association. Based on this, TV can be embedded in a wider HTML5 ecosystem, including broadcast easily as a new type of resource. Working with HTML5 for video, audio and real-time web applications makes it easier to create applications for all devices.

Target Audiences

The project targets three audience groups. First, the end user, enabled to use different devices and different content simultaneously. Second, the broadcaster, provided with real-time delivery and synchronisation of media contents and applications across devices, eliminating them the need for the creation and maintenance of different developments for these kind of services. Third, for developers and service providers standardization and interoperability eliminating the limits set by TV’s proprietary and vendor specific technologies.

Services or Products offered

APIs, Applications, java-script libraries, sequencer (generic mechanism for timing sensitive execution in multi-device applications), User-interface engine library, Adaptation engine, Module for dynamic pairing of resources, Data synchronisation, Cross-platform authentication.

1.5.2  TV-Ring

Testbeds for Connected TV services using HbbTV

Type of Activities

TV-Ring[6] works internet-based TV and the delivery of additional services and contents on top of traditional broadcasting suggesting how linear TV providers can adapt to new user requirements and start to produce transmedia content for the so called connected TVs.

It demonstrates innovative applications in 3 pilot regions in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain, their concrete commercial and technical benefits. It accelerates the market uptake of the HbbTV standard. And it increases visibility and awareness of Connected TV.

Type of ICT

TV-Ring works on connected TV and internet-based television. All devices (TVs, computers, smartphones, tablets) can be used for the consumption of visual media and are thus part of the project. Underlying are HbbTV platforms, NGA network infrastructures and dynamic adaptive streaming via HTTP (MPEG-DASH). Based on HbbTV, using the combination of broadcasting and additional content streamed over NGA network infrastructures (Next Generation Access networks).

Target Audiences

The project targets primarily professional users such as broadcasters, program makers and app developers. Indirectly, it addresses end-users for an improved media consumption experience.

Services or Products offered

HbbTV application that connects all devices in a network to one master device, offering a service that provides cross-device content, additional content (behind-the-scene clips, video and audio interviews or personal fact-sheets of the show’s actors) and new perspectives including replays, different camera angles, close-ups and additional footage; Intelligent recommendation engine; High-quality multi-camera HD video services over HbbTV.

1.5.3  FORWARD

Framework for a EU-wide Audiovisual Orphan Works Registry

Type of Activities

FORWARD[7] establishes a pan-European system for audiovisual rights assessment and orphan works (protected by copyrights without an identifiable author/rights holder). This facilitates availability, e.g. for digitisation projects. Rights clearing for AV works is a complex process while, at the same time, the resources of archives in identifying and locating rights holders are limited.

The project creates permanent registries, coordinates with other European initiatives, defines system requirements, analyses existing data to define rights statuses, harmonises right status definitions across Europe, supports Europe’s Film Heritage Institutions, establishes a network of national clearance centres, ensures the interoperability with other systems, and develops a sustainable business model.

Type of ICT

FORWARD develops a European wide data platform for harvesting and processing data on audiovisual rights statuses.

Target Audiences

FORWARD targets relevant stakeholders. Direct beneficiaries are legal bodies (not individuals), such as publicly accessible libraries, educational establishments, museums, archives, film or audio heritage institutions and public service broadcasting organisations. Also external users can have limited access to the system.

Services or Products offered

FORWARD intends to offer an EU wide, automated system to assess rights’ statuses for all types of audiovisual works, including orphans. The system can search and process information necessary to define rights statuses. Users have clear information on whether a work is in public domain or in-copyright, and in this case, whether it is orphan, and under which conditions it can be used across Europe.

1.5.4  COMPEIT

COnnected Media and Presence from European Institute of Technology

Type of Activities

COMPEIT[8] provides features of mediated presence in an easy to use manner through internet-based distribution providing interactivity and integration with virtual, mixed and augmented reality. It is enabled by new web technologies and a proliferation of devices for audio, video and tangible interaction. It establishes the infrastructure for prototyping and piloting, the “experience lab”, where developers and users can try out next-generation interactive media production and consumption, exploring products and services, online with little or no cost and effort.

Type of ICT

The COMPEIT platform consists of two main frameworks: Media framework based on the Kurento multimedia processing framework and Tangible framework based on the Bitverse communication framework.

Target Audiences

NOT DEFINED

Services or Products offered

COMPEIT creates a Cloud Platform with a multimedia processing framework and a data management framework, a web-based system and liquid web applications for highly interactive, personalised, shared media experiences. These features include: “Shared Experience with Tangible Interaction” enables audiences to enjoy enhanced live media together, complemented by interactive games; “Broadcast Presence Studio” mixes live media with web-based content; “Mixed-Reality Interaction” is a web service where content generated by the Broadcast Presence Studio service can be mixed into the viewer’s physical environment using ambient devices.

1.5.5  CrowdRec

Crowd-powered recommendation for continuous digital media access and exchange in social networks

Type of Activities

CrowdRec[9] uses crowdsourcing, input and feedback from a wider community, to create a reciprocal relationship between users and content. Stream Recommendation, the real-time combination of information from collection, context, user interaction and user; Crowd Engagement, creating symbiosis between users and content that activates users to contribute; Deployment and Validation in user trials.

Type of ICT

CrowdRec provides algorithms that combine crowdsourcing and recommendation to achieve a new generation of social smartfeeds for access and exchange of digital media in social networks.

Target Audiences

CrowdRec targets business users, such as social networks and recommender system vendors.

Services or Products offered

Recommender system that are context-aware, resource-combining, interactive, scalable.

1.5.6  ICoSOLE

Immersive Coverage of Spatially Outspread Live Events

Type of Activities

ICoSOLE[10] enables users to experience live events which are spatially spread out (eg. Fesitivals, marathons, parades, etc.), combining high-quality spatial video and audio and user generated content. It integrates professional and consumer content, based on metadata and content analysis.

Type of ICT

The core is a platform for a context-adapted hybrid broadcast-Internet service, live content streaming between diverse devices and a variety of sensors, ranging from mobile consumer devices over professional broadcast capture equipment to panoramic and/or free-viewpoint video and spatial audio. Also methods for streaming live high-quality audiovisual content from mobile capture devices to content acquisition, processing and editing services will be developed. Methods for fusing visual and audio information into a Format agnostic data representation are developed, which enable rendering video and audio for virtual viewer/listener positions.

Target Audiences

ICoSOLE targets the broadcasters of such events and indirectly also end-users.

Services or Products offered

ICoSOLE offers tools for media production, to select, configure and review content sources being used; to capture, extract and annotate metadata during the production process and to integrate this throughout the entire production chain to the end user. Content will be provided via broadcast, enhanced by additional content transported via broadband and novel interaction possibilities for second screen and web consumption. The content will also be provided in an adapted form to mobile devices, with specific location-based functionalities for users.

1.5.7  NUBOMEDIA

Open source cloud for real-time multimedia communications

Type of Activities

NUBOMEDIA[11] provides infrastructure for interactive multimedia communication development for non-expert users, the creation and maintenance of being too expensive for most many companies, who do not want to use existing private and proprietary solutions (e.g. Skype, Google Hangouts or Apple FaceTime). This enables to create customised mass-scale services supporting new features such as augmented reality, computer vision or multisensory information integration. It behaves as a single virtual super-computer encompassing all the available resources of the physical network.

Type of ICT

At the core of NUBOMEDIA is an elastic Platform as a Service (PaaS). It is based on a simple to use and intuitive API usable on most client platforms such as smartphones and browsers. The infrastructure is available under open source software licenses.

Target Audiences

NUBOMEDIA primarily targets European companies and in particular numerous SMEs, that could improve competitiveness and innovation capability if they can create and maintain, without large investments, their specific-purpose interactive multimedia infrastructures in areas such as security, training, e-Health, CRM, ERPs, TV production and broadcasting, logistics, games, social networks.

Services or Products offered

The project offers a cloud platform in a PaaS fashion, specifically designed for hosting interactive multimedia services. It exposes to developers APIs for creating media pipelines: chains of elements providing media capabilities such as encryption, transcoding, augmented reality or video content analysis, which allow building arbitrarily complex media processing for applications.

1.5.8  UCN

UserCentricNetworking

Type of Activities

UCN[12] contributes to connected media services, improved content recommendation and delivery frameworks by taking into account rich user context information. User information is leveraged to store, discover and deliver content in the most optimal conditions at any time, for a given user in a specific context. The project a personal information hub for storing and managing personal and contextual user data under the sole control of the user, linked to data collectors that collect and store a wide variety of rich contextual data.

Type of ICT

UCN works on data collection methodologies and mechanisms to obtain rich user data, data collectors adding semantics to raw data, context-aware recommendations, security and privacy mechanisms. It intends to aggregate and bridge the wide variety of technologies underlying the end-user’s services and digital content in the home network and the Internet

Target Audiences

The end-user is the primary target of UCN.

Services or Products offered

UCN offers a personal information hub. Based on this it offers a personalised digital media delivery and content discovery platform with focus on privacy (privacy preserving data exchange technologies). It offers content recommendation mechanisms using rich end user profiles.

1.5.9  BRIDGET

Bridging the gap for enhanced broadcast

Type of Activities

BRIDGET[13] develops links from broadcast programmes to external interactive media elements. Its use scenarios are in the field of news, films, tourism, virtual media and edutainment.

Type of ICT

The project develops a hybrid broadcast/Internet architecture, authoring tools for different user groups generate Bridgets (media elements such as web pages, images, audio clips, different types of video and synthetic 3D models), and a user interface to consume available Bridgets. These tools use media analysis and visual search, 3D scene reconstruction enabling customised and context-adapted, interactive hybrid broadcast/Internet services, multi-screen, with social and immersive content.

Target Audiences

Bridget targets professional users or authors of Bridgets. These include primarily broadcasters and content providers (e.g. news or film). It also targets end-users or media consumers, both as authors and pure consumers>

Services or Products offered

Concretely, BRIDGET offers a professional authoring tool to generate Bridgets and dynamic AR scenes with spatialised audio; an easy-to-use authoring tool for end users; a player to select Bridgets, and consume and navigate the resulting interactive media. Brigets can thus be created by and by end users from their own archives or from Internet content. They can be transmitted in the broadcast stream or independently, filtered by a recommendation engine based on user profile, viewed on different screens, in a user-centric and immersive manner.

1.5.10   REVEAL

REVEALing hidden concepts in Social Media

Type of Activities

REVEAL[14] deciphers interactions of individuals in complex Social Media, in real time, and determines the trustworthiness of information. It analyses social media data, organises it, deduces relationships, visualises and protects personal data. Individuals can access information from primary social media sources, without the effort to distinguish useful information from the ‘noise’ (e.g. useless or misleading information). Use cases are journalism, event coverage & content production on the one hand, and enterprises on the other.

Type of ICT

REVEAL provides a platform with a presentation layer (user interface, visualization), services layer (API web services), a business layer (business workflows and API), and a data layer. It utilises semantic analysis of social, topical, and geo-spatial context.

Target Audiences

REVEAL targets journalists in the first place. The system can help them in event coverage and content production. It targets also enterprises, helping to interact with social media data about the company and to improve processes and products.

Services or Products offered

Concretely, REVEAL offers a unified visualization framework to users, which combines all modalities to determine the credibility of a media source and content. It also offers a toolbox for indexing of user-generated content which will be based on text, visual and hybrid analysis methods. And a toolkit for analysing different dimensions of context of both contributors and content items.

1.5.11      SAM

Dynamic Social and Media Content Syndication for 2nd Screen

Type of Activities

SAM[15] works on social media delivery based on 2nd Screen and content syndication within a Social Media context; dynamic, context-centric social interaction based on the use of media and companion screens (2nd screen). It provides open and standardised ways of characterizing, discovering and syndicating media assets interactively, thus enabling content to find a user’s second screen in the right context.

Type of ICT

2nd screen: means to comment on or recommend a TV programme and search for related information. Content syndication: digital content created once and delivered together to diverse (marketing) channels. Users will be able to consume and “prosume” media content from different syndicated sources, using different synchronised devices like tablets, smartphones, notebooks and connected TV sets and more.

Target Audiences

SAM targets consumers, to provide them with a better media consumption experience and to involve them in the production of syndicated content.

It targets business users, such as media broadcasters, content asset providers, software companies, digital marketing agencies and other content providers that can create richer, enhanced experiences around original media content items such as television programming, TV shows and on-demand video.

Services or Products offered

A federated social media delivery platform, providing an open way of defining, characterising, discovering, socially consuming, syndicating, and interacting with media assets. Social communities based on user-consumed media, behaviour and interests expressed while interacting with the system and other users. Open and standardised formats for the description of media assets and a framework for their configuration and use, to be used by third party companies to easily build 2nd Screen apps. Techniques for extraction, data characterisation and social analysis including targeted sentiment analysis. Service for companies, especially SMEs, to analyse crowd-sourced reaction to assets published, impact of social media campaigns, advertisements and other marketing actions.

1.5.12      HBB4ALL

Hybrid Broadcast Broadband for All

Type of Activities

HBB4all[16] develops applications for accessibility in the connected TV environment (HbbTV). It identifies ways of addressing the key technical, organisational and legal obstacles to the sustainable take-up of these services throughout Europe. The project runs four pilots, respectively on multi-platform subtitle services, alternative audio production and distribution, automatic user interface adaptation, and sign language translation services.

Type of ICT

HBB4all offers access services and accessibility applications such as subtitling, additional audio track generation and distribution, enhanced graphical interface creation and signing for Smart TV.

Target Audiences

HBB4all targets users with sensorial impairments, older people, and people with mild cognitive impairments such as dyslexia and aphasia for whom the services hitherto have not been sufficient.

Services or Products offered

A standardized solution for (live) internet streaming which enables a common subtitle format for video on demand services (MPEG-DASH streaming combined with EBU-TT-D subtitles). Customised subtitles for Smart TV services. An application that translates spoken language into sign language, generated with a screen avatar

1.5.13       ACTION-TV

User InterACTION Aware Content Generation and Distribution for Next Generation Social TeleVision

Type of Activities

Action-TV[17] is about interactive TV in an innovative mode of user interaction for broadcasting to relax the rigid and passive nature of present broadcasting ecosystems. It concretely aims at enabling users to take part in TV shows providing a sense of immersion into the show and seamless engagement with the content. And encouraging users to use TV shows as a means of social engagement.

Type of ICT

ActionTV works with on user interaction and engagement aware content creation; user model generation and real time rendering in 3D; user interaction capture and analysis (touch, video…); real-time transmission over media clouds.

Target Audiences

ActionTV targets content providers and end-users (active collaborating users, passive collaborating users and on-collaborating users)

Services or Products offered

ActionTV concretely offers advanced digital media access and a delivery platform that enables augmenting traditional audio-visual broadcastings with novel interactivity elements to encourage natural engagement with the content.

1.5.14   2-Immerse

Creating and Delivering Shared and Personalised Multi-Screen Broadcast and Broadband Experiences

Type of Activities

2-Immerse[18] will develop prototype multi-screen experiences for an any-device environment; These experiences will merge broadcast and broadband content with the benefits of social media. It will also explore the object based broadcasting; that is where content objects are rendered at the client device (the television) rather than prior to transmission at the broadcaster.

Type of ICT

2-IMMERSE builds a platform based on the HbbTV2.0 specification for television. The project will thus highlight the capabilities of the HbbTV2.0 specification and contribute towards its evolution.

Target Audiences

2-IMMERSE targets producers and audiences of personalized, immersive and shared live and on-demand coverage of live performance (theatre) and sport, as well as artists.

Services or Products offered

Open platform supporting multi-screen experiences. Distributed media apps that combine synchronised, interactive and customisable content service applications to provide individual and shared content customized to the number and type of screens available and the preferences of the audience. Tools for the production of experiences for multiple screens, design guidelines and workflow insights that allow producers to orchestrate experiences for arbitrary multi-screen environments

1.5.15        MPAT

Multi-platform application toolkit

Type of Activities

MPAT[19] makes application development affordable and sustainable while creating a new eco-system. This enables creating programme-related interactive content, seamless transition between live and on-demand, and multi-screen support.

Type of ICT

The open-source MPAT core will provide all essential features to create compelling multi-screen experiences for HbbTV and other HTML5-based devices. It follows a WordPress-like technical and business approach to application development affordable and sustainable while creating a new eco-system for content creators, theme and plug-in developers alike.

Target Audiences

Content creators, developers of interactive multimedia applications, themes and plug-ins.

Services or Products offered

Multi-Platform Application Toolkit (MPAT) is to open up the emerging possibilities of hbyrid TV to content producers, by providing an easy-to-use authoring tool for the creation of interactive multimedia applications

1.5.16      VisualMedia

Immersive and Interactive Real Time 3D Social Media Graphics Environments for the Broadcast Industry

Type of Activities

VisualMedia[20] is about integrating content generated through social media with real-time 3D graphics capability specifically developed for the broadcast media sector.

Type of ICT

VisualMedia integrates social media engines, 3D graphics capabilities and interaction systems into one single solution in order to bring to the market a new way to produce interactive TV programs.

Target Audiences

VisualMedia targets broadcasters.

Services or Products offered

VisualMedia’s integrated solution allows broadcasters to manage content (statistics, images, messages etc.) streaming through social media channels in real-time and the possibility to display this information in a way that the presenter can interact with advanced graphical.

It offers to audience diverse data via a second screen solution. The individual user has the opportunity to interact with information, filter data received, select the way the information should be displayed. It offers the opportunity to interact in real-time with programs broadcasted, by publishing content in established Social Media Platforms which will then be immediately available for presentation by the broadcaster, or by participating in polls, or light entertainment formats on a second screen.

1.5.17     ImmersiaTV

Immersive Experiences around TV

Type of Activities

ImmersiaTV[21] will create a novel form of broadcast omnidirectional video, content production and delivery that offers end-users a coherent audiovisual experience across head mounted displays, second screens and the traditional TV set, instead of having their attention divided across them. This novel kind of content will seamlessly integrate with and further augment traditional TV and second display consumer habits. Technologies and procedures will be demonstrated in 3 pilot demonstrations addressing both on-demand and live content delivery: a football school documentary, a Live sports event, and an improved version of pilot 1 and 2.

Type of ICT

The types of ICT utilised and developed in the project are omnidirectional video capture, immersive content production tools, encoding/decoding of omnidirectional video, content delivery and reception, visualisation and interaction principles for omnidirectional content.

Target Audiences

The project targets broadcasters.

Services or Products offered

ImmersiaTV will provide an end-to-end toolset covering the entire audiovisual value chain: immersive production tools, support for omnidirectional cameras, including ultra-high definition and high dynamic range images, and adaptive content coding and delivery,

1.5.18        InVID

In Video Veritas – Verification of Social Media Video Content for the News Industry

Type of Activities

The InVID[22] innovation action develops a knowledge verification platform to detect emerging stories and assess the reliability of newsworthy video files and content spread via social media. InVID will help protecting the news industry from distributing fakes, falsehoods, lost reputation and lawsuits.

Type of ICT

Video analysis, shot/scene segmentation and visual concept detection, providing interactive user interface; enabling novel newsroom applications, integration of social media content into news output without struggling to know if material can be trusted or how user can be asked permission for re-use.

Target Audiences

Targeted are broadcasters, news agencies, web pure-players, newspapers and publishers.

Services or Products offered

InVID will build a platform providing services to detect, authenticate and check the reliability and accuracy of newsworthy video files and video content spread via social media. It ensures that verified and rights-cleared video content is readily available for integration into news reports.

1.5.19              COGNITUS

Converging broadcast and user generated content for interactive ultra-high definition services

Type of Activities

Cognitus[23] is about how user-sourced media can enrich the conventional broadcasting experience. The project tests outcomes through use case demonstrators at real events (sporting or concerts). It aims at delivering evidence for the validity, effectiveness and innovative power of user-involved UHD content creation

Type of ICT

Video broadcasting, processing and analytics with the aim of enabling innovative ultra-high definition (UHD) broadcasting allowing creation of UHD media with the knowledge of professional producers, ubiquity of user generated content (UGC), and the power of interactive networked social creativity in a synergistic multimedia production approach.

Target Audiences

Content creators and consumers who are also creating content

Services or Products offered

InVID provides methods to incentivise users to share content with broadcasters; enables production of UHD content from varying qualities of source media; user interaction in broadcast event planning; and develops a system of quality metrics for measuring user experience.

1.6    Clustering of Projects

Based on individual reviews of the projects, as presented above, this section summarizes the projects’ activities and their outputs. It interprets these results, mapping their output and technologies as an overview informing the whole of the i3 project. Analysing all the projects financed by the call ICT 19-2015 it’s possible to identify some common lines. The clustering takes into account all nineteen projects, which were discussed in previous section. Figure 5 at the end of this section provides an overview of the activities and outputs of all nineteen projects.

1.6.1  Activities

As argued in Chapter 1 the definition of social media convergence can include a wide variety of aspects. Such facets are particularly clear looking at the heterogeneous variety of the projects operating under the same call ICT 19-2015. Analysing the cluster of projects, it can be said that, despite diverse objectives and foci, 17 out of the 19 projects work concretely on what was introduced in previous chapter as multi-platform content. The remaining two projects, FORWARD and NUBOMEDIA, work respectively on audio-visual rights assessment and infrastructure for creating customized, interactive communication services (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Projects working on Multi-platform Content

Furthermore, the review of the nineteen projects demonstrates that twelve projects deal directly with social media and its integration in other channels, to enrich content, to create interactive user experiences and more (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Projects integrating Social Media

Even if those 12 projects work broadly on the same topic, activities are not homogenous. At a glance, it is possible to stress out that some projects are directly integrating content from social media channels in for instance broadcasting, while others are using user generated content more broadly. שגיאה! מקור ההפניה לא נמצא. provides an overview of the 12 projects engaged in the same sector highlighting main differences.

Media Scape Integrates social media, from a technical perspective, in a wider multi-user and multi-screen environment
CrowdRec Develops social smartfeeds based on crowdsourcing and a resource combining recommendation system, which can be integrated in different media channels
ICoSOLE Enriches professional content for live event coverage with user generated content
UCN Builds provides a personal information hub to end users based on user context information and advanced content recommendation and delivery systems
BRIDGET Links broadcast programmes to external interactive (social) media content
REVEAL Analyses and visualizes social media content, particularly regarding trustworthiness, and offers it to journalists and enterprises for utilising it according to their needs
SAM Provides a system for media content from syndicated sources for advanced social media delivery over screens
ActionTV Intends to create TV that are a means of social engagement with active collaborating users
2Immerse Merges broadcast with internet and social media content
InVID Verifies content spread via social media for professional content producers
VisualMedia Utilises social media content to create interactive TV programs
COGNITUS Enriches conventional broadcasting through user-sourced media

Table 1: Activities of Projects working directly with social media

1.6.2 Technologies and outputs

Analysing technological output of the projects, thirteen projects out of nineteen are broadly working on enriching television and/or audio-visual consumption experiences. The main sectors that have been identified are the following: internet based TV, interactive TV, multi-screen integration, platforms, toolsets, communication services and data platform for right assessment. It is noteworthy that the majority of the projects is active in this field. 6 projects, FORWARD, CrowdRec, NuboMedia, UCN, REVEAL and InVID are not, or only marginally, engaged in this field (Figure 4).

Figure 4: Projects related to broadcasting and other forms of audiovisual consumption

Following tables cluster the projects according to their technological assets and/or the technological solutions, which are their output.

Internet based TV

Internet-based TV or at least the connection between traditional broadcasting and broadband is a central technology for many projects.

Media Scape Provides hybrid broadcast-internet synchronization based on HTML5
TV-Ring Works on connected and internet-based TV
ICoSOLE Provides hybrid broadcast-internet services
COMPEIT Utilises internet-based distribution of media
BRIDGET Is based on hybrid broadcast-internet architecture
HBB4all Aims at making connected TV more accessible
ActionTV Provides the means to enrich audio-visual broadcasting
2Immerse Works with hbbtv
MPAT Works with hbbtv
ImmersiaTV Is about omnidirectional content on various screens

Table 2: Projects working with Internet-based TV

Interactive TV

Making audio-visual consumption in general and broadcasting in particular more interactive the aim of following projects.

Media Scape Provides socially engaging services
ICoSOLE Enhances broadcast with novel interaction possibilities
COMPEIT Works on interactive media production and consumption
BRIDGET Links broadcast programmes to other interactive media elements
SAM Syndicates media sources interactively
ActionTV Involve audiences in broadcasting through interactivity
2Immerse Involve audiences in broadcasting through interactivity
MPAT Enables application development for interactive content
VisualMedia Is about immersive and interactive TV programs
ImmersiaTV Provides omnidirectional video

Table 3: Projects working on Interactive TV

Multi-screen / 2nd Screen

MediaScape, TV-Ring, ICoSole, BRIDGET, SAM, 2Immerse, MPAT, VisualMedia and ImmersiaTV work on multi-scree or 2nd screen solutions.

These include aspects such as synchronisation, trans-media content, 2nd Screen and content syndication for social media delivery, multi-screen support for interactive content delivery, shared and personalised multiscreen experiences, “any-device” environments, and distributed media apps.

Platforms

Several of the projects under review are providing a platform to deliver the developed services and/or solutions (Table 4).

FORWARD Developed a platform for audio-visual rights assessment
COMPEIT Developed a platform for multimedia processing and data management
NuboMedia Developed a platform for interactive multimedia communication services
UCN Provides a platform for personalized media delivery and content discovery with privacy focus
SAM Developed a federated social media delivery platform
ActionTV Provides a delivery platform that enables enhancing audio-visual broadcastings
2Immerse Provides a platform supporting multi-screen experiences
InVID Offers a platform to detect, authenticate, check reliability and accuracy of media sources

Table 4: Projects providing a platform as part of their output

Toolsets

Several of the projects provide, in addition to other outputs, the tools or toolsets to broadcasters, developers, content creators or end-users (Table 5).

COMPEIT. Icosole. NuboMedia. BRIDGET. REVEAL. 2Immerse. MPAT. VisualMedia’s solution. ImmersiaTV.

COMPEIT Provides tools for interactive media production
Icosole Provides tools for media production and metadata integration towards end-users
NuboMedia Supports the creation of communication pipelines
BRIDGET Provides easy-to-use authoring tools for the “bridgets” developed in the project
REVEAL Overs a toolbox for indexing user-generated content
2Immerse Offers tools for the production of media experiences
MPAT Offers a multi-platform application toolkit and easy-to-use authoring tool
VisualMedia Offers tools that serve the production of interactive TV content
ImmersiaTV Offers an integrated toolset for the production and distribution of immersive and interactive content across devices

Table 5: Projects providing toolsets as part of their output

Communication Services

The NuboMedia project sets itself apart from the other projects, by offering interactive multimedia communication infrastructure for non-expert users, as an alternative to predominating services such as Skype or Google.

Data platform for rights assessment

Also the FORWARD project needs to be differentiated due to a substantial difference in focus. It establishes an EU wide automated system to assess rights’ statuses for all types of audio-visual works.

Figure 5: Summary of Project Activities and Outputs

1.6.3 Target Users

Beyond activities and outputs, another important aspect for the categorisation of the projects is the target users or customers.

Most of the projects do not target the end-user indirectly (Figure 6). The majority describes there targets as professional users, which are defined as broadcasters, program makers, service providers, content creators, journalists, application developers and software companies, social networks, enterprises, marketing agencies, news agencies, publishers.

MediaScape, BRIDGET, SAM, ActionTV, 2Immerse, VisualMedia target professional users, such as described above, as well as end-users. Only UCN and Hbb4all target end-users exclusively.

Figure 6: Project Target User Groups

1.6.4 Business Focus & Technology Readiness

The business focus and the level of technology readiness is another important factor, under which the projects can be clustered. Clear target users and value propositions are decisive in this regard. However, the analysis of publicly available documents does not suffice to assess these aspects. Moreover, business models and technological readiness are integral parts of the i3 methodology, which aims to measure these aspects of impact or expected impact.


2. i3 Methodology and its Indicators

The purpose of the i3 support action is to determine the most applicable tools and methodologies for projects financed by ICT-19 to assess and increase their impact. D2.1 provides the methodological framework definition in this context.

Activities and outputs of the projects, as identified in the project review above, help to identify what seems to be the most relevant methodology and indicators. Indices, indicators and variables will be used for describing and quantifying outputs, outcomes and impacts. The overview of the projects is based on the analysis and documentation of official project documents and related to a first interaction with almost all the project during the cluster meeting organized by the DG connect.

This preliminary gathering of information allows to have a first picture of the projects highlighting similarities and divergences understanding the sector and the principal issues shaping it. A careful understanding of these projects, in terms of innovative solutions, main points of strengths, and of course, of impact, can only be possible when concrete methodology, as defined in D2.1, is applied to the projects. Impact assessment, as envisaged by i3, is an interactive exercise, which presupposes a preliminary phase for testing and validating the approach developed by i3 together with the projects. The necessary iterations are foreseen by the DoW to begin in Month 5 of the project, and will validate correctness of the approach according to the projects’ needs.

As described in D2.1, I3 has developed a methodology for impact assessment based on other European project experience in the field such as SEQUOIA[24], ERINA+[25], MAXICULTURE[26] and IA4SI[27]. Then, the methodology has been revised in order to develop indicators and variables directly connected to the assessment of projects in Convergence and Social media. This step is informed by the data gathered for this deliverable. This is the case because a methodology for impact assessment has to take into account sector peculiarities, principal activities, and other information in order to calibrate the used approach. A second phase of methodology refinement will be conducted in close cooperation with the projects in order to validate it and before the assessment is proceeded.

The interactive approach does not only refer to external parties, but also to the collaboration within the i3 team itself. This is illustrated by the strong connection between methodology developed within WP2 to amplify the business and technology readiness and WP3, namely the social media convergence ecosystem engagement. Such collaboration it’s necessary in order to create an iterative approach that is attuned to project interests and needs.

At this stage it is possible to argue that the analysis here provided highlights the needs for a comprehensive and flexible. The diverse topics on which the projects work, their different objectives and focusses illustrate the heterogeneity of the domain, as does the literature review in chapter 1. Due to the complexity of the domain, the methodological approach has to be flexible enough to be adapted to each particular and unique case. Also, different indices have to be established to cover different attributes of the innovation.

The investigation of expected impacts from a technological perspective is fundamental to map the technical evolution of the projects. Social Media and convergence is directly interconnected with technology due to the media forms and platforms (Jenkins, 2006). However, as also stressed by the cited critical approaches, focused more on values and actions in the cultural, social, political, and economic domains (Mansell, 2012), also other dimensions need to be assessed. It is also very much linked to the user perspective, to the forms of engagement and to the wider sphere of the social and economic. In line with this, also social impact, economic impact and impact on the social media and convergence domain will be assessed according to dedicated indices.

As laid down in D2.1, four “vertical indices” are suggested by the i3 team. They are related to specific areas of impact and related sub-categories. The first is Economic Impact, which takes into account eight parameter as suggested in the business model canvas: Customer Segmentation, Value Proposition, Distribution Channels, Customer Relationships, Key Resources, Key Activities, Key Partnership, Cost Structure & Revenue Streams. The second is Impact on Society, composed of Social Impact, Impact on Employment and Working Routing, and Knowledge production and Sharing. The third is Technological Impact, relating the projects’ outputs with the state of the art. The fourth and last is the impact a project has in the domain convergence and social media itself.

Furthermore, four “transversal indices” are suggested. They evaluate the process followed by the projects in assessing their impact. In other words, the transversal indices are related to the attributes of the innovation developed. The first “transversal indicator” is efficiency, assessing time/effort used for achieving expected results. The second is effectiveness, which refers to the degree one is capable of producing a specific and desired effect. The third is sustainability regarding the viability of a project’s results after the funding period. The fourth and last transversal indicator is innovativeness, which links i3’s vertical indices with the Innovation Radar of the European Commission.

All these dimensions will be used to assess the projects and then to derive results and indications that will make the domain stronger. At a smaller scale, the impact assessment phase will practically help each project to evaluate itself also in comparison to the other projects understanding its point of strength and weakness, information that will be fundamental when projects will face with the description of a market strategy.

I3 will make this connection stronger: analysis of the domain, dedicated methodology, directed participation of the projects and market oriented approach all together combined to promote innovation and improve the sector.


Conclusion

Social Media and Convergence is a broad and heterogeneous domain, constantly in flux as it is being shaped by evolving technologies as much as by creators and consumers of media. The i3 support action exists to support research, which is being conducted in the domain, in reaching its full potential.

This deliverable constitutes a starting point hereto. It is complementary to D2.1 “Methodological framework definition”. As laid down in the Description of Work, present analysis and discussion provide an overview of the Social Media and Convergence domain.

The literature review presented in chapter 1 constitutes the first pillar of this document; a theoretical introduction to the domain, main research interests and the respective ecosystem. It is stated there that several themes are leading the analytical fabric of social media convergence: the dynamics of participation, privacy and empowerment; commodification, professionalization and monetization; and technology and governance mechanisms.

For i3, these themes of investigation link the theoretical perspective with the activities of the research projects and the practical interests of the European Commission.

They thus underpin the criteria under which the review of the nineteen research projects has been conducted. The projects were analysed in order to identify assumptions about activities, platforms, services, resources and target audience characteristics. This review constitutes the second pillar of the overview provided in this deliverable. The review illustrated that a wide variety of interesting activities are being undertaken, all aiming at contributing to the domain in one way or another.

It has become clear that the “vertical indices” of the i3 methodology are indeed highly relevant for the projects in practice. Preliminary talks with project representatives[28] seem to suggest, however, that business model considerations and especially investor attraction are most interesting for the projects. This will be considered in the remaining work of i3. The review has demonstrated that for example a clear definition of target customers and value proposition, both decisive parameters in this context, is sometimes missing.

Another aspect to be considered carefully is the interest of the projects and their consortia in self-assessment of their value and impact, and thus suggested “transversal indices”. It seems difficult for them to invest additional time and effort if their gains are not clear or only indirect. This might constitute a barrier for i3 and its envisioned activities.

Another challenge for i3 will be the time in which impact is observable. The project activities are being performed in parallel with i3’s activities. We can thus only focus on expected impacts. For this reason, it is important for the i3 team to also engage those projects that are ending in 2016 as much as possible. They will be able to provide another perspective on the methodology, due to their experiences. These projects will be urged to contribute their ideas as much as possible, at least in the beginning to validate methodology and tools.


References

Ballon, P. (2007). Business modelling revisited: the configuration of control and value. Info, 9(5), 6–19. http://doi.org/10.1108/14636690710816417

Feenberg, A (2009). Critical Theory of Communication Technology: Introduction to Special Section. Information Society Journal, vol. 25, No. 2, March-April 2009, pp. 77-83

Gasser, U., & Ernst, S. (2006). From Shakespeare to DJ Danger Mouse: A quick look at copyright and user creativity in the digital age. Retrieved 15 February, 2007, from http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/publications

Ibrus I, Scolari, C., eds, (2012). Crossmedia Innovations: Texts, Markets, Institutions, Education. Hamburg: Peter Lang Verlag.

Jenkins, H (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, New York: New York University Press.

Langlois, G (2013). Participatory Culture and the New Governance of Communication: The Paradox of Participatory Media. Television & New Media, 14(2): 91-105.

Mansell R (2012). Imagining the Internet, Oxford University Press; Oxford.

Marwick, A. (2012). The Public Domain: Surveillance in Everyday Life. Surveillance & Society, 9(4): 378-393.

Moore, J. F. (1993). Predators and prey: a new ecology of competition. Harvard Business Review, 71(3), 75–86.

O’Reilly, T. (2005). What is Web 2.0. Accessed 4 February, 2016.  http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html

Potts, J., Cunningham, S., Hartley, J., & Ormerod, P. (2008). Social Network Markets: A new definition of the creative industries, from http://www.cultural-science.org/FeastPapers2008/JasonPotts1Bp.pdf

Pratt, A. (2004). The Cultural Economy: A call for spatialized ‘production of culture’ perspectives. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1), 117-128.

Uricchio, W. (2004). Beyond the Great Divide: Collaborative networks and the challenge to dominant conceptions of creative industries. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1), 79-90.

van Dijck J (2013). The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media, Oxford University Press.

Ebrahim, Alnoor S., and V. Kasturi Rangan. “The limits of nonprofit impact: A contingency framework for measuring social performance.” Harvard Business School General Management Unit Working Paper 10-099 (2010): 10-099.

van der Graaf, S., Ramirez Reyes, M., Long, G. (2010). Doctor Who: A Finding Freeflow Case Study. Microsoft, Redmond, USA.

van der Graaf, S. (2015). Social Media. In: Mansell, R., & Ang, P. H. (Eds.). The International Encyclopedia of Digital Communication and Society, Wiley Blackwell-ICA Encyclopedias of Communication. Malden and Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. 1014-1026.

van der Graaf, S. (2015). Imaginaries of Ownership; the logic of participation in the moral economy of 3D software design. Telematics and Informatics, special issue Ethics in the information Society. Elsevier. vol. 32, number 2. 400–408.

Annex A) Overview of the Project Review

Following Table 6 presents an overview of the detailed assessment in chapter 3.2. It is structured according to the four criteria used for the review.

Project Activities ICT Target Audiences Services/
Products
1)     

Media Scape

Connected, socially engaging multi-user, multi-screen services

 

Hybrid broadcast-internet synchronisation;

HTML5

End-user

Broadcaster

Developer & Service Provider

Apis & Applications

Java script libraries & sequencer

UI engine & Adaptation engine

Dynamic pairing resources & Data synchronisation

Cross-platform authentication

2)     

TV-Ring

Connected & internet-based TV

Trans-media content

Hbbtv platform

NGA network

Dynamic adaptive streaming

Professional users (broadcasters, program makers, app developers)

 

Application connecting devices

Recommendation engine

Multi-camera video services over

3)     

Forward

Autdiovisiual rights assessment Data platform for rights assessment Libraries

Educational establishments

Museums

Archives

Heritage institutions

Public service broadcasting

EU wide automated system to assess rights’ statuses for all types of audiovisual works
4)     

Compeit

Interactive media production and consumption, mediated presence through internet-based distribution, interactivity, integration with virtual, mixed and augmented reality Platform for creating, distributing and consuming interactive media Not defined Cloud platform for multimedia processing, data management

Web-based system and liquid web applications

5)     

Crowd
Rec

Crowdsourcing and recommendation for media and social networks Algorithms for crowdsourcing and recommendation

Social smartfeeds

Business users: social networks, recommender systems Context aware, resource-combining, interactive, scalable recommender system
6)     

ICoSOLE

Live event coverage combining spatial video/audio and user generated content, integrating content from professional and consumer capture devices

 

Platform for context-adapted hybrid broadcast-Internet service

Live content streaming between diverse devices and sensors

Fusing visual and audio information into a Format agnostic data representation

Broadcasters of live events Tools for media production and metadata integration towards end user

Broadcast enhanced by content and novel interaction possibilities for second screen and web consumption

7)     

Nubo
Media

Interactive multimedia communication infrastructure for non-expert users

Creation of customized mass-scale services

Elastic platform as a service through apis European companies, in particular numerous smes Cloud platform for hosting interactive multimedia services

Apis for creating media pipelines

8)     

UCN

Connected context aware media services

Improved content recommendation and delivery

Rich user context information

User control

Data collection methodologies

Mechanisms to obtain rich user data

Data collectors adding semantics to raw data

Context-aware recommendations

Security and privacy mechanisms

End-user Personal information hub

Personalized digital media delivery and content discovery platform with privacy focus

Content recommendation mechanisms

9)     

Bridget

Links from broadcast programmes to external interactive media elements Hybrid broadcast-Internet architecture

Connected media elements

Media analysis

Visual search

3D scene reconstruction

Customised and context-adapted interactive hybrid services

Multi-screen

Social and immersive content

Broadcasters and content providers (news, film)

Media consumers (as authors and consumers)

Professional authoring tool to generate Bridgets and dynamic AR scenes with spatialised audio

Easy-to-use authoring tool for end users

Player to select and consume Bridgets

10) 

REVEAL

Real-time analysing and visualising information from primary social media sources

Trustworthiness assessment

Personal data protection

Platform with presentation layer, service layer, business layer, data layer

Semantic data analysis

Journalists

Enterprises

Visualisation framework for credibility of media sources and content

Toolbox for indexing user-generated content

Toolkit for context analysis

11) 

SAM

2nd Screen and content syndication for advanced social media delivery

Dynamic, context-centric social interaction

Characterizing, discovering and syndicating media assets interactively

2nd screen

Content syndication

Media content from syndicated sources, using any kind of synchronised device

 

Consumers

“Prosumers”

Business users (broadcasters, content asset providers, software companies, marketing agencies)

Federated social media delivery platform

Social communities based on profiling

Open and standardised formats for the description of media assets

Extraction, data characterisation and social analysis techniques

Social media analysis

12) 

HBB4all

Applications for accessibility in the connected TV environment Access services

Accessibility applications

Subtitling

Additional audio track generation and distribution

Enhanced graphical interface creation

Signing for Smart TV

Users with sensorial impairments

Older people

People with mild cognitive impairments

Common subtitle format for video on demand services

Customised subtitles for Smart TV services

Application that translates spoken language into sign language

13) 

ActionTV

Interactive TV

Enabling users to take part in TV shows

TV shows as a means of social engagement

User interaction and engagement aware content creation

User model generation and real time rendering in 3D

User interaction capture and analysis

Real-time transmission over media clouds

Content providers

Active Collaborating Users

Passive Collaborating Users

Non-collaborating Users

Advanced digital media access

Delivery platform that enables enhancing audio-visual broadcastings with interactivity elements encouraging natural engagement with content

14) 

2Immerse

Immersing audiences in shared and personalised multiscreen experiences in any-device environments

Merging broadcast, broadband content with social media

Object-based broadcasting

Hbbtv2.0 specification for television

 

Producers and audiences of live performances (theatre) and sport Platform supporting multi-screen experiences

Distributed media apps, synchronised, interactive, customisable

Tools for the production of experiences

15) 

MPAT

Making application development affordable and sustainable

Creating eco-system

Enabling programme-related interactive content, seamless transition between live and on-demand, and multi-screen support

Open-source MPAT core with essential features to create compelling multi-screen experiences for hbbtv and other HTML5-based devices Content creators

Developers of interactive multimedia applications, themes and plug-ins

Multi-Platform Application Toolkit

Easy-to-use authoring tool for the creation of interactive multimedia applications

16) 

Visual
Media

Immersive and Interactive Real Time 3D Social Media Graphics Environments for the Broadcast Industry

New ways to produce interactive TV programs

Social media engines

3D graphics capabilities

Interaction systems

 

Broadcasters

Audiences

Integrated solution for content production of interactive TV

Second screen solution for interaction

17) 

ImmersiaTV

Broadcast omnidirectional video, content production and delivery

Offering end-users a coherent audiovisual experience displays, second screens and the traditional tv set

Omnidirectional video capture

Immersive content production tools,

Encoding/decoding of omnidirectional video

Content delivery and reception

Visualisation and interaction principles for omnidirectional content

Broadcasters End-to-end toolset covering audiovisual value chain:

Immersive production tools,

Support for omnidirectional cameras,

Including ultra-high definition and high dynamic range images,

Adaptive content coding and delivery

18) 

InVID

Knowledge verification to detect emerging stories and assess the reliability of newsworthy video files and content spread via social media Video analysis

Shot/scene segmentation

Visual concept detection

Interactive user interface

Enabling novel newsroom applications

Integration of social media content into news

Broadcasters

News agencies

Web pure-players

Newspapers

Publishers

Platform to detect, authenticate and check reliability and accuracy of newsworthy video files and content spread via social media

Verified and rights-cleared video content readily available for integration into news reports

19) 

Cognitus

Enriching conventional broadcasting experiences through user-sourced media Video broadcasting, processing and analytics

Innovative ultra-high definition (UHD) broadcasting

Joint media production with professionals and users

Interactive networked social creativity

Content creators

Consumers who are also creating content

 

Methods to incentivise users to share content

Production of UHD content from varying qualities of source media

User interaction in broadcast event planning

System of quality metrics for measuring user experience

Table 6: Overview of Reviewed Projects


Annex B) List of Project dates & Websites

Following Table 7 presents an list of all projects financed by FP7 and H2020 with the start date, end date and web-site link.

  Projects Start Date End Date  Website
FP7 MediaScape (610404)

Dynamic Media Service Creation, Adaptation and Publishing on Every Device

23.09.13 29.02.16 http://mediascapeproject.eu/
CIP TV-RING (325209)

Television Ring – Testbeds for Connected TV services using HbbTV

01.09.13 29.02.16 http://www.tvring.eu/
CIP FORWARD (325135)

Framework for a EU-wide Audiovisual Orphan Works Registry

01.07.13 30.06.16 http://project-forward.eu/
FP7 COMPEIT (611324)

COnnected Media and Presence from European Institute of Technology

01.10.13 30.09.16 http://www.compeit.eu/
FP7 CrowdRec (610594)

Crowd-powered recommendation for continuous digital media access and exchange in social networks

01.10.13 30.09.16 http://crowdrec.eu/
FP7 ICoSOLE (610370)

Immersive Coverage of Spatially Outspread Live Events

01.10.13 30.09.16 http://icosole.eu/
FP7 NUBOMEDIA (610576) 01.02.14 30.09.16 http://www.nubomedia.eu/
FP7 UCN (611001)

User-Centric Networking

01.10.13 30.09.16 https://usercentricnetworking.eu/
FP7 BRIDGET (610691)

Bridging the gap for enhanced broadcast

01.11.13 31.10.16 http://ict-bridget.eu/
FP7 REVEAL (610928)

REVEALing hidden concepts in Social Media

01.11.13 31.10.16 http://revealproject.eu/
FP7 SAM (611372) – Dynamic Social and Media Content Syndication for 2nd Screen 01.10.13 31.10.16 http://samproject.net/  
CIP HBB4ALL (621014)

Hybrid Broadcast Broadband for All

01.12.13 30.11.16 http://www.hbb4all.eu/
 CIP ACTION-TV (611761)

User InterACTION Aware Content Generation and Distribution for Next Generation Social TeleVision

01.01.14 31.12.16 http://wordpress.action-tv.net/
H2020 687655 2IMMERSE

Creating and Delivering Shared and Personalised Multi-Screen Broadcast and Broadband Experiences

01.12.15 30.11.18 https://2immerse.eu/
H2020 687921 MPAT

Multi-platform application toolkit

01.12.15 30.11.17 http://mpat.eu/
H2020 687800 VISUALMEDIA

Immersive and Interactive Real Time 3D Social Media Graphics Environments for the Broadcast Industry

01.01.16 31.12.17 http://www.visualmediaproject.com/
H2020 688619 ImmersiaTV

Immersive Experiences around TV, an integrated toolset for the production and distribution of immersive and interactive content across devices.

01.01.16 30.06.18 http://www.immersiatv.eu/
H2020 687786 InVID 01.01.16 31.12.18  http://www.invid-project.eu/
In Video Veritas – Verification of Social Media Video Content for the News Industry
H2020 687605 COGNITUS

Converging broadcast and user generated content for interactive ultra-high definition services

01.01.16 31.12.18  http://cognitus-h2020.eu/

Table 7: List of Project dates & Websites


[1]

Annex A) Overview of the Project Review provides a full overview of the reviewed projects, structured according to the four criteria. Annex B) List of Project dates & Websites provides the additional practical information.

[2] Platforms have been built to serve different niches of sociality and creativity, or commerce. They often start out in one particular domain and gradually develop a multi-platform strategy trying to contain and cater to (various) user groups. Evidently, (social) platforms are dynamic objects tweaked in response to users’ needs, owners’ objectives in reaction to competing platforms, rather than being finished products (Feenberg, 2009).

[3] Social media take many different forms, varying from collaborative projects, to blogs and microblogs, to content communities, to social networking sites, to virtual game worlds, and much more. They are based on technologies such as groupware, file sharing technologies, application programming interfaces (APIs), wikis, podcasts, wall postings, instant messaging, social bookmarking, and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Social network aggregation platforms integrate many different kinds of social media.

[4] The notion of ecosystem describes networks of interrelated and mutually dependent actors that are defined and delimited by its relation to certain objectives (Moore, 1993). Ecosystems co-evolve with actors and their roles, are influenced by individual objectives and interests, and the wider environment. The overall strength and weakness of such an ecosystem depends on how each actor – both public and private – contributes (adds value) to it (Ballon, 2007).

[5] http://mediascapeproject.eu/

[6] http://www.tvring.eu/

[7] http://project-forward.eu/

[8] http://www.compeit.eu/

[9] http://crowdrec.eu/

[10] http://icosole.eu/

[11] http://www.nubomedia.eu/

[12] https://usercentricnetworking.eu/

[13] http://ict-bridget.eu/

[14] http://revealproject.eu/

[15] http://samproject.net/

[16] http://www.hbb4all.eu/

[17] http://wordpress.action-tv.net/

[18] https://2immerse.eu/

[19] http://mpat.eu/

[20] www.visualmediaproject.com/

[21] www.immersiatv.eu/

[22] http://www.invid-project.eu/

[23] http://cognitus-h2020.eu/

[24]For an overview of the SEQUOIA methodology and results see Passani et all, 2014. The compete methodology is described in Monacciani et all, 2011 and a practical approach to its usage is described in Monacciani et all, 2012.

[25]The ERINA+ Methodology and related tools is described in Passani et all, (2013)

[26]The MAXICULTURE methodology is described in Passani et all, 2014.

[27] Available at http://www.iaia.org/publicdocuments/special-publications/What%20is%20IA_web.pdf

[28] Undertaken by the i3 team on the NEM general assembly and the Commission’s Info Day and Cluster Meeting

COMMENTS